Vie privée: un monde clairement opaque
Débat Ce que nous postons sur les réseaux sociaux n'est que la partie visible de l'iceberg. Les géants du web gardent nos données personnelles jamais postées ni autorisées.
Un meilleur cadre légal
Mais renoncer aux réseaux sociaux n'est nullement une solution. «Je continue à utiliser ces plateformes, d'une part parce que nous devons faire la distinction entre excellente technologie, que sont les réseaux sociaux et Internet, et les mauvais usages des données par les gouvernements et les grandes compagnies. Ensuite, il est aujourd'hui quasiment impossible de se passer de ces services. En achetant un smartphone, on fournit des données soit à Apple soit à Google», explique Max Schrems qui souhaite un meilleur cadre légal pour ses utilisateurs.
Pour rappel, nous sommes aujourd'hui quelque 1,86 billion d'utilisateurs rien que sur Facebook! «Prenons l'invention géniale de la voiture qui nous a permis de nous déplacer rapidement. Mais lorsque les accidents ont augmenté, nous avons parlé de sécurité, de limitation de vitesse et de permis de conduire. Il se produit la même chose à l'âge digital. La question n'est pas de savoir si cela est bon ou mauvais, il s'agit plutôt de limiter les effets secondaires nocifs», conclut l'avocat que l'on peut rencontrer le 15 mars prochain à l'issue de la projection de Facebookistan (20 h, salle Pitoëff, Genève).
La Playstation 4 souhaite la bienvenue à la nouvelle génération. Grâce à un processeur plus rapide et une carte graphique plus performante, la nouvelle Playstation 4 Pro est nettement plus puissante que la PS4. Mais ce ne sont pas ses seuls atouts. En effet, la technologie HDR (High Dynamic Range) offre un contraste plus élevé.
Seul inconvénient, la résolution n'est pas vraiment au point. Si la PS4 Pro est certes en 4K, elle ne lit pas les films proposés dans ce format. Il est toutefois possible de les visionner upscalés (via une mise à niveau) en 4K en streaming sur Netflix, Youtube, etc. Bon à savoir: selon les informations fournies
par Sony, il est possible de remplacer le disque dur 1 To HDD – dont la mémoire est insuffisante pour les joueurs – par un SSD (avec mémoire flash).
Playstation 4 Pro, 1TB Jet Black, disponible pour 449 fr., chez Interdiscount
«FIFA Mobile Football» d'Electronic Arts propose un jeu captivant qui vous accompagne dans vos déplacements. Les développeurs se sont concentrés sur la présentation et la «jouabilité» (ou gameplay), et ont transposé le jeu pour console dans une version pour appareils mobiles.
La nouveauté, c'est le mode Attaque dans lequel seuls les buts comptent. Dans ce mode «chacun son tour» avec des matches rapides, les joueurs tentent d'utiliser un maximum de tactiques avant de céder le ballon à leur adversaire. Chaque but marqué permet de gagner des fans qui vont aider le joueur à progresser dans le classement. Il existe pour ce faire un mode de jeu en ligne. Le jeu est très fluide et le graphisme convaincant.
«FIFA Mobile Football», gratuit pour iOS et Android (avec achats intégrés)
Is Facebook the only social media that violates our privacy ? What about Twitter, Snapchat, Pinterest, Viber …. ? And the internet in general ?
I think there is a systematic and cultural problem in the IT industry, that they think the law applies to everyone but them. This is the whole concept of “breaking the rules” as a form of being innovative. Now under that definition the Mafia would be the most innovative enterprise in the world. I think the issue is therefore much broader than just privacy. They also don't pay taxes, they don't follow our laws on e.g. Nazi propaganda and many other laws and try to sell this as “innovation”. We need to make sure that companies that want to be on our markets, also follow our rules – this is not just about the rule of law and the way that a democracy works, but also about fair completion with local companies that follow the laws.
What problems could have a user on Facebook that shares its everyday life with friends and family ? Can you give an example of a misuse by FB and consequences on our lives?
Generally each user has to take responsibility for what he shares. If you post your drunk party pictures, it may not help for you next job application. I think this is clear to most people, when they look at their screen. I am more concerned with what is happening behind the “front page” and our screens. There are huge data silos and extreme analytics run on each person. Much of the data that is compiled about us, is that that we never willingly shared with any of these companies. We debate a lot about the “front end”, but the real problems lie in the “background” that no user ever sees.
The consequences have a very wired range. I was e.g. put on a security list last time I flew to the US and a close friend of mine is always interrogated when he enters the US – you are never told why. In daily life we will see much more practical problems without data protection: Your insurance premiums depend on an algorithm, there is “price discrimination”, where based on your need the same product will cost more for you than for others. Companies may not even supply you anymore based on credit ranking. This is often simply a “risk shifting” from the companies to the users – it used to be the businesses' risk that you can for example not pay your bills – then it will be your risk that you don't get a contract anymore.
What happens when you delete a FB account? Is it totally deleted?
No. They say they keep certain information. They don't say which information and how much. In our case we could proof, that even if you delete data on Facebook, the data is still kept in many cases. In the end the data is only “hidden” from the front end and your screen, but stays on the servers.
I read in some newspapers that the US government will look at our FB account if we plan to visit the US… Is that real? Could it be possible? And is that legal?
There are plans by the US government to do so. Generally, any government can set up rules about who it allows into a country. If the US does introduce these rules, there is nothing we could do about it.
Is your advice from your personal experience to avoid social media (and most of all FB) or to be more careful about what we post? Can you give us some advices about what not to post?
I still use most services, because first of all we should differentiate between great technology, like social networks or the internet – and the misuse by governments and large companies. Secondly it is almost impossible to not these services anymore. If you want to have a smartphone, you can either give all you data to Apple or Google – there is no real other option. I think the solution is that we break up monopolies, ensure that there are open standard and enforce our rights – going offline is not an option.
What changed in our private life protection since FB bought WhatsApp, Messenger and Instagram?
I think this is part of a very problematic « monopolization » of the internet. The great power of the net was that it was open and there were endless options. Today a small number of big companies try to take control over an open system. They already managed to take control over the most modern communication systems and our smartphones. We have to make sure that open systems like the internet itself, email or the telephone network are not replaced by closed systems like Facebook, WhatsApp or Google.
What is our responsibility in using social media? Today we are 1.86 billion only on FB!
I think as a user there is little we can do on the privacy side, other than not posting too much information.
As a user we can actually do more e.g. about the social results of these networks, such as that people engage in “digital showoffs”. I for example hardly post personal stuff, like party photos or travel photos. I think there is a lot of social pressure that is generated online, because these services are designed to show everyone that your life is only great. Most of our lives is however shitty and boring. I am very afraid that by pretending that we all live such wonderful lives, we make ourselves miserable, because our reality can't compete with the online fiction.
What evolution do you see with social media (end of them in some years, more and more violations, …)?
I think there is an evolution. For example, many of my friend are not sharing about themselves this much anymore (e.g. their trips) but more about stuff other people may be interested in (e.g. interesting newspaper articles). I think much of this are also trends, that we will laugh about in a couple of years and we should not take each service or new product all too seriously. However, we have to take action on the bigger picture, like the right to privacy, monopoly building, privatization of the internet or closed standards. These are general trends that are critical for a free, open and competitive digital age.
Are there any positive aspects about social media and FB in particular?
As I said, there are many and the technology is great and very helpful. We need to separate much more between the technology and the misuse. It is great that people invented cars to drive places, but when a lot of people die in traffic, we have talk about safety, speed limits and drivers licenses. This is similar in the digital age. It is not a “good or bad” question, it is a “great, but let's minimize the bad side effects” debate.